Dvaita

Dvaita

INTRODUCTION 

The three principle philosophies of Hinduism are Advaita, Vishistadvaita and Dvaita. They may appear as different from each other, but they are the different stages of spiritual evolution.  They are different steps on the ladder of spiritual excellence.  Different philosophies suit different mentalities.  No philosophy is inferior to the other.  The three main acharyas, Adi Shankara, Ramanuja and Madhava, with pure devotion and dedication has formed their own philosophies.  One has to select the philosophy that suits them and practice it to improve from their level of knowledge to reach the ultimate goal, Brahman.

DVAITA 

Dvaita Philosophy as propounded by Sri Madhavacharya

Madhavacharya (1199-1278) AD was born in Udupi, Karnataka state.  He is also called Anandha tirtha.  Like Ramanujacharya, Madhavacharya also strongly opposed the Advaita philosophy of Sankaracharya.  Madhavacharya was regarded by his followers as an incarnation of the wind God Vayu.

According to Dvaita philosophy, Vishnu is the supreme God.  Dvaita identifies Brahman (the Absolute reality) of the Upanisad as the personal God, Vishnu.  Paramatma is different from Jivatma.  Each Jivatma is different from the other.  It emphasizes the existence of two separate realities.  The first reality is that Vishnu is the supreme God.  The second reality is that the universe is real and it exists as a separate reality.  God Vishnu takes a personal role and he governs and controls the universe.

The five fundamental eternal and real differences as described in this system are,

  1. Between the individual soul (Jivatma) and God (Vishnu, Brahman)
  2. Between matter (inanimate, insentient) and God
  3. Amongst individual souls (Jivatma)
  4. Between matter and Jiva
  5. Amongst various types of matter

Madhavacharya embraces the Vaishnava theology, which understand God as personal and endowed with attributes.  Shiva is regarded as secondary.  Liberation is the realization that all finite reality (Jivas) is essentially dependent on the supreme.

Vaishnava bhakti movement strongly supported the Dvaita philosophy.  It is strongly based on the bhakti (devotion) culture.

The three philosophies, Advaita, Vishishadvaita and Dvaita, may appear as different from each other, but they are the different stages of spiritual evolution.  They are different steps on the ladder of spiritual excellence.  Different philosophies suit different mentalities.  No philosophy is inferior to the other.  The three main acharyas, Adi Shankara, Ramanuja and Madhava, with pure devotion and dedication has formed their own philosophies.  One has to select the philosophy that suits them and practice it to improve from their level of knowledge to reach the ultimate goal, Brahman.

Many follow the Dvaita philosophy. They feel that God is the controller of their life, God is different from them, each Jiva is separate from the other and there is hierarchy among the Jivas too.  Only a core group practices the Kevala Advaita philosophy.  It is very profound and subtle.  Advaita philosophy exactly conveys the meaning of the Upanisads, Brahma sutra and Baghvad Gita.  Even after centuries of formation of this philosophy, Advaita philosophy still vibrates in the universe among the highly spiritually evolved people.

Many people are not aware of these philosophies, but they worship God, in the manner they prefer.  Ultimately it is the pure love for God that is more important than the philosophies.  When the philosophies dominate, arguments gain strength and the pure love for God takes back stage.  Whether God is personal or impersonal, true devotion and knowledge transcends the soul to its original nature.

About Post Author

administrator